Here are some resources about the Malad River to help you build your argument. You will likely need more information than is provided here, but this should get you started.


Beneficial Uses

Common Citizens

Malad city wastewater services
Malad city council

Idaho wastewater treatment policies
EPA: municipalities wastewater treatment plants
Wastewater treatment technologies
How does sewage affect river ecosystems?


Idaho fish and game
Malad area recreation
Recreation in Malad
Stonefly Society - A fishing organization
Water quality standards for fish


EPA Office of Water
Summary of EPA water quality processes
EPA water quality scorecard


Idaho Conservation League water issues page

Farming in general

Farmers and ranchers in Idaho and Utah need water to irrigate crops and feed livestock.
Water quality for agricultural
P 17 Guidelines for interpretation of water quality for irrigation
P 90 Effect of trace elements on agriculture
P 91 A table of recommended maximum concentrations of trace elements in irrigation water
P 92 A table of use of saline waters for livestock and poultry

Idaho Farmers

University of Idaho farming extension
Farm service agency - Idaho

Utah Farmers

Farm service agency - Utah

Idaho State government

Idaho Department of Water Quality Surface Water
Water Quality Criteria

Biological indicator of watershed health

Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Our Waters
Biotic Indicators of Water Quality

Dissolved Oxygen

Dissolved oxygen information sheet


Causes and effects of turbid water
Turbidity: An explanation
What is turbidity?


Stream Temperature


phosphorous effect on rivers
What does phosphorous do in the river?
Factors affecting phosphorous concentration
(in the link above, scroll to the section with the heading "Factors affecting phosphorous concentrations")

Overview of findings

according to the Idaho water quality standards:Idaho water quality standards
"Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations must exceed six (6) mg/l at all times" (p. 151)
So at Mr. Vaughan's, the dissolved oxygen levels were not enough.
Phosphate levels were also a problem throughout the river.
Important bugs - stoneflies, caddisflies, and mayflies - were present up by Daniels but not down at Mr. Vaughan's or at Mr. Palmer's. This indicates pollution.
Turbidity was a problem at Mr. Vaughan's and Mr. Palmer's.

Additional Resource

Water Quality Criteria
Water Quality Standards
Natural Resources Defense Council water page

Sierra Club Water Sentinels

Background Information

The Malad River is part of the Bear River Watershed. Water from the
Malad River enters the Bear River near Bear River City in Utah.

What is Watershed
This page explains the meaning of watershed.

General Information about the Malad River

Introduction to the Malad River

The Lower Bear-Malad Watershed
This page describes the Lower Bear-Malad Watershed, which is part of the Bear River Watershed. The site is run by the Utah Water Research Laboratory and Utah State University.

The Bear River Basin/Malad River Subbasin
This page describes the Malad River Subbasin, including information about the uses of the river and water quality tests and results. The site is managed by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality.

The Malad River Drainage
This page describes water features and fishing along the Malad River.

History of the Malad River

Please check with your teacher to see the book  about the history of the Malad River.

Maps of the Malad River

This is an interactive map published by the Environmental Protection Agency. Using the dropdown box in upper left, you can tell the map to show you all rivers and lakes that have been tested (Assessed Waters) and the rivers and lakes that do not meet EPA standards (Impaired Waters). The Water Impairments menu on the right allows you to see specific types of pollutants in the water.

The Bear River Interactive Map Viewer
On the left side of the page, you can select different options to see different maps. For example, you can select “Bear River Watershed” under the “Watersheds” section or “Land Ownership” under the “Administrative” section to see the maps in which you are interested. Malad is the area of the map labeled 16010204.

General Information about the Bear River

The page numbers listed below each document are good places to start, but you may also find other useful information in the linked documents. Please note: Page numbers refer to pages in the pdf as indicated in the Adobe Reader interface.

Journey through the Bear River
P 12-18 Maps of the Bear River
P 19-20 Timeline of human history around the Bear River Watershed
P 23-44 Overview of the Bear River Watershed (wildlife, descriptions of different areas in Bear River Watershed, etc.)
P 42-44 Water quality of the Bear River; information about how pollutants can be introduced into rivers and streams

The Bear River/Malad River Subbasin Assessment and Total Maximum …
P 13  Abbreviations
P 86  Beneficial uses of the Malad River and its tributaries
P 87 Several water quality criteria for the Bear River and its tributaries
P 91  TMDL (Total Maximum Daily Load) for phosphorous in the Malad River
P 118  Amounts measurements exceeded water quality criteria in the Malad River and tributaries

Water Quality of the Malad River

Historical Data of the Malad River

Data of the Malad River, 1964-1980

1981-1982 Water Quality Report for the Little Malad River
P10-21 Sediment, phosphorus, nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, pH, and turbidity data for the Little Malad River drainage

Description of Little Malad River Drainage above Daniels …

Utah Department of Environmental Quality Division of Water …
P62  A count of water quality samples for the mainstream Bear River and tributaries between Cutler Reservoir and the Great Salt Lake
P67 Water quality criteria and exceedance data for several sites and water quality criteria

Malad River Water Quality Data from Recent Years

Little Malad Subbasin Water Quality Monitoring Report

Student Water Quality Data

Additional Resources

Criteria for Water Quality

The Bear River Watershed

Common Water Quality Measures

Surface Water in Idaho